Southwest Peddlers
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Volume #37, Issue #1, Fall, 2004/5765

Peddlers and Merchants
on the Southwest Frontier,

by Floyd S. Fierman


The Spiegelberg Brothers, 1860’s.
(l. to r.) Lehman, Solomon, Jacob, Levi & Willi. (Elias was deceased.)
                                    —From Photo Archives of WSJH

The designation “Southwest” covers a broad swath. To some people it would include all of Texas, Oklahoma, Utah and Colorado, as well as New Mexico and Arizona. The subject matter under discussion in this paper shall encompass only West Texas, New Mexico and Arizona.

The word “peddler” should also be deleted from the title when we refer to the Southwest. It is inconceivable that “peddling” could have been employed to unite the seller and the buyer in the land of the yucca and the saguaro. Distances between communities were too vast, and the sparse settlements between the larger trade-centers like Santa Fé, Old Mesilla and Yuma did not lend themselves to this method of distribution. Furthermore, it would have been difficult for the peddler to obtain merchandise to hawk since the established merchant, in addition to selling his stock, was also forced to convey the articles for sale into the trade area. After such a monumental effort he would have been reluctant to share his valuable cargo. This is underlined by advertisements in the periodicals of the day which emphasized that most trade was concentrated about the Plaza.1

The term “Jewish” also necessitates exploration. Could the Jewish frontiersman be distinguished from his Catholic, Protestant or nonprofessed counterpart? To some students, consideration of a settler in the business category alone gives no clue to the religious identity of the settler. A theme contrary to this is suggested by Dean William Parrish of the University of New Mexico. He differentiates in his study, The German few and the Commercial Revolution in Territorial New Mexico 1850-1900,2 when he offers an encomium for the Jewish merchant. It is his thesis that the German-Jewish merchant of New Mexico from 1850-1900 was a major factor in the economic development of New Mexico, if not the Southwest. A corollary to this outlook is the observation that a large percentage of those who stood behind the counter in the adobe towns were of Jewish birth. Despite these well-documented arguments we should be alert to Jewish renegades like Solomon Barth3 who excelled in dishonesty as compared to such hinterland personalities as the Bibo brothers4 who might be classified as economic failures.

Placing this analysis in the scales it would appear that the adjective “Jewish” applies more accurately when the frontiersman is studied in broader sociological aspects. Thus, Michel Goldwater 5 of Prescott arranged his buying trips to San Francisco in 1877 so that they might coincide with the Jewish High Holydays; and S. H. Drachman 6 of Tucson kept a diary, which begins in 1863, in which he noted the occurrences of the Jewish Holydays as he roamed about the territory. Emanuel Rosenwald 7 in 1854 was faced with the dilemma of whether to keep his store open or closed on Yom Kippur, the Day of Atonement. He resolved the matter with ease. He remained home and prayed while his brother Joe took charge of the store.

Why They Came West
An underlying inquiry is what motivated the Jew to migrate to the Southwest. This question was probed by the writer in a previous study, Some Early Jewish Settlers on the Southwestern Frontier.8 In this monograph the theory was developed that the Jew like anybody else came to the West because of El Dorado. Dean Parrish presents the opinion that the steamship lines in cooperation with the American railroads gave attractive discounts to the would-be western immigrant. Mrs. Perry Kallison,9 a student of Texas history, informs us that a number of books written in German about American opportunities, particularly in Texas, were published in the German states in the last half of the nineteenth century, There is a possibility that some of these adventurers to Arizona and New Mexico may have read J. Val Hecke’s Reise durch die Vereingten Staaten von NordAmerika. Hecke was so enthusiastic about Texas that he made the original suggestion that Russia buy Texas from Spain and found a German colony in that territory. Or else these restless people could have been enchanted by P. Alto S. Hoerman’s novel, Tochter Tehuan’s, which romanticized Texas and which was in wide circulation during the mid-nineteenth century.

Whether the transportation companies or the laudatory literature served as a magnetic pull we cannot be certain. But of this we can be definite: the material at hand discloses that the typical Jewish settler was a young man without opportunity in his homeland, who had a compulsion to find a new prosperous life. He was a treasure hunter and nothing else.

Sources of Information
In developing a methodology to uncover traces of the Jewish pioneer, it was first necessary, of course, to locate the historical sources. Because “Uncle Sam” was and still is the most important economic agent in the Southwest and because the soldier had to be supplied, the Indian supervised, and the mail carried, the National Archives contain the richest lode of information. They list all the government transactions with the Southwest contractors.

Other references are the discovery of diaries and reminiscences written by some of these migrants in their golden years. Reminiscences written late in life frequently contain error due to the tendency of the elderly to exaggerate and because of the pitfall of the lapse of memory, but these discourses as well as the periodicals of the day are invaluable. Interviews with descendants of these early travelers were also helpful. These conversations aid the researcher in identifying various members of a family and sometimes because of their own historical pride some descendants compiled genealogies which upon examination, piece together the jig-saw puzzle of a settler’s career.

Some Prominent Pioneers
A prominent family in the Old Mesilla-El Paso vicinity was the Lesinsky-Freudenthal-Solomon11 family. This combination of families, related by marriage, were government mail carriers; they ran passenger coaches and they supplied the troops stationed in the area. Government indentures were a little less than a retainer, but they permitted a man or a family to branch out into other areas. Henry Lesinsky and his company opened stores in Silver City, Las Cruces and Solomonville. He also operated a copper mine and smelter in Clifton, Arizona, and by 1880 the mine produced 100,000 pounds of copper per month. After operating the mine for ten years, Henry and his partners sold the mine for $1,400,000. Their original capital was $300,000.

Lesinsky, like the Staab Brothers 12 of Santa Fé, also made separate business alliances with people outside of his normal business ventures. In one such case Lesinsky became associated with Ernest Angerstein13 who was astute enough to lay claim to a portion of Fort Bliss near El Paso when the government was slow in exercising a lease renewal. Later when the well-known W. W. Mills of El Paso attempted to wrest the Post readership away from Ernest Angerstein and his partners who held the appointment, a communication from the government not only did not support Mills but the writer commented that even if the Government did, it could not remove Angerstein, since he now owned this area of Fort Bliss and it was his homestead.

I. E. Solomon was the founder of a bank in Solomonville, Arizona, which was to become the Valley National Bank of Arizona. The bank had its beginning in Solomonville in 1899. The Solomon family eventually lost their holding in this bank but they can be credited with founding it.

Few families are more colorful than the Spiegelberg family whose headquarters were in Santa Fé. Solomon Jacob Spiegelberg, the oldest of six Spiegelberg brothers, was the first to leave Germany. He crossed the Santa Fé trail in an ox-train and, according to one report, was appointed a sutler for Colonel William A. Doniphan’s regiment. By 1846 he had established a wholesale and retail general merchandise business and in 1868 he was joined by his five brothers, Willi, Emanuel, Levi, Lehman and Elias. This pattern of one member of a family digging roots in the territory and then sending for or encouraging other members of the family to migrate was a typical practice. It was true of the Lesinsky - Freudenthal - Solomon family, the Rosenwalds and Staabs of New Mexico; the Drachman -Goldberg, and the Zeckendorf - Steinfeld families of Arizona.14 Many of the Spiegelberg records have been lost, but recently uncovered material housed in the National Archives has revealed their activities as Government contractors. Dean Parrish recently guided the writer to a bank letter book which records the activities of the Spiegelbergs as bankers.15 The Spiegelbergs were founders of the Second National Bank of Santa Fé which held a national bank charter from 1872 to 1892. These brothers, with Solomon returning to Germany and Levi located in New York and the others remaining in Santa Fé, did an international banking business from their center in the capital city of New Mexico. They also staked their fellow countrymen, the Bibo brothers, in their activities as Indian traders among the Acomas.

The Drachman - Goldberg16 family of Arizona also form a captivating aggregation. Philip Drachman arrived in New York in 1852with two fellow passengers, Michel and Joseph Goldwater, who were to become notable in Arizona history. In 1854, at the age of eighteen, Philip came west. He and his brother Samuel, and their two brothers-in-law, Hyman Goldberg and Sam Katzenstein, and Hyman’s brother, Isaac, all were closely identified with the growth of the Arizona territory. While these immigrants never personally accumulated the wealth that was potentially obtainable, their efforts as prospectors were sifted on the drywasher to the advantage of the territory. Immeasurable were their contributions to the economic and political development in what was then a backward stretch of land.

Isaac Goldberg, called Lomo de Oro 17 by a contemporary journalist, was a mercurial personality. He had interests above the ground and over the ground and he was enchanted by what was in the ground. Sometimes he became a venturesome prospector. Other times as in 1871 he responded as a supplier. He had a nose for business and an eye for gold.

Aaron and Louis Zeckendorf, of German ancestors, had a general mercantile business in Old Albuquerque from 1867 to 1869, and later located in Tucson, Arizona. Louis Zeckendorf came to the United States in 1854 where he joined his brother Aaron in Santa Fé. Shortly after, the firm of A & L. Zeckendorf was started and in 1866 a branch house was initiated. Aaron died in 1872 and the business in Tucson which became the central enterprise was continued by Louis.

Louis Zeckendorf

The manner in which William Zeckendorf protected his property and stimulated commerce illustrates that being a merchant in the territory in the eighteen hundreds was not a drab experience. The Weekly Arizonian, Tucson, Arizona Territory, shouted in pica that:

On Thursday night a party of burglars entered the store of Mr. [W.] Zeckendorf and had carried out some $300 worth of clothing, when several bullets from a pistol in the hands of excited Zeckendorf took effect at various points in the roof of the building, and put the thieves to flight, leaving their plunder piled in the street.18

William Zeckendorf kept his image before the public in various ways. The Weekly Arizonian of 1870 reports:

On Sunday last Mr. Zeckendorf called the attention of every man, woman and child in town to the anniversary of his birth, by a magnificent display of fireworks.... The grandest pyrotechnic display of the evening marked the closing of the celebration and consisted in the burning of Don Fernandez’ stable and hay, ignited by a spark from a Roman candle ....19

On another occasion, The Weekly Arizonian of 1870 comments:

Zeckendorf by the aid of a ladder climbed to the giddy summit of his store, drove a huge steel spike into the wall ... suspended therefrom a glass lantern not quite as large as a hogshead. The light which shoots out from this is so intense that no chicken in any part of town ever goes to roost until Zeckendorf extinguishes his lamp about 10 o’clock pm.

William Zeckendorf evidentially became a carnival promoter. In addition to advertising himself by means of fireworks, dull business in December, 1870, prompted him to stimulate the reticent buyer in another manner. He introduced a “Christmas Lottery” at which two hundred prizes were announced by handbills posted upon every building, fence, corral and gate in town. Tickets sold for five dollars.

This was a scheme that he learned, we are told, from the Grand Mercantile Library of San Francisco. Subsequently, a nephew of Aaron Zeckendorf, Albert Steinfeld, who was at first a junior partner, assumed leadership of the store in Tucson.

The Zeckendorfs, like all the other Southwestern newcomers referred to, obtained warrants from the government. They held mail contracts, were suppliers, and they sought and secured documents permitting them to trade with the Indians.

The Business Hazards
Engaging in business in the unfenced West had its hazards. The Bibos, for example, had many problems incidental to supplying the Forts. Some of these problems were created by nature while others were the result of human dishonesty. In 1871 Nathan Bibo sublet a contract from the government to two men, Howard and Leonard, who were to supply a hundred tons of hay to Fort Apache. His partners, however, were as crooked as the roads which carried the hay. A special messenger from the quartermaster at Camp Apache, a friend of Nathan’s, warned him that the two men were privately collecting for every pound of hay they had delivered, without divulging in their transactions that Nathan Bibo was also a partner. After a hurried investigation, Nathan learned that not only were his partners in this contract not giving him what was due him, they were also using his hay cutting machines to cut the hay. By the time Nathan arrived at Fort Apache, Howard and Leonard had already taken flight. Yet Nathan was still responsible for fulfilling the contract.

Solomon Bibo, who was a post trader at the Acoma reservation, was accused by the Indian Agent Pedro Sanchez in 1884 of violating his Trader’s License by obtaining a lease of the Acoma grant. There was much litigation over this lease and finally the government concluded in their case in 1888 that the lease with Solomon Bibo was drawn up with the common consent of the Acoma Pueblo, and thus Solomon was absolved from the accusation of engaging in sharp practices with the Indians.

The Drachmans and the Goldbergs who followed on the heels of the Arizona prospector ascended and descended with the miner’s success or failure. To operate in many directions required a quick merchandise turnover which in turn demanded a boom town economy. Miners had to be staked, new settlers had to be given credit and they were all good for what they borrowed as long as the economy stood up and as long as they found the mineral they were seeking. But when they did not, then the whole economy tumbled. This was the condition in which Hyman Goldberg found himself in 1878. He was over-extended. To break the chain of debt, he petitioned for bankruptcy in Yuma County on March 5, 1878.

There were, in addition to the hazard of the rapid rise and fall of boom towns, the triple scourge of fire, building cave-in, and flash flood. A kerosene lamp could be knocked over by an inebriate or inadvertently by a would-be customer causing the soft-goods to go up in flame. The flash flood of the Southwest and the subsequent weakening of the adobe walls from which buildings were constructed could result in a cave-in, the vigas killing the unsuspecting people below or just generally wrecking the building.

Hyman Goldberg was the proprietor of a store in Harshaw which received the unexpected triple blow. In Harshaw “about two-thirds of his stock was destroyed [by fire] and the balance considerably damaged .21 A Phoenix paper reported that the loss approximated $15,000. This unfortunate occurrence was preceded a year earlier by the crumbling of a wall where the loss was $600, and a month previous to the fire, flood waters created damages to the amount of $1,000. Four years later, in 1885, Hyman was a spectator at another fire, this time in Phoenix. It leveled a whole business block and Goldberg’s merchandise and building loss was $12,000. 22
The Spiegelbergs had their problems, too. The State Archives in Santa Fé 23 has made available a record of delinquent accounts due the Spiegelberg Brothers which was given to the legal firm of Gildersleeve and Knaebel of Santa Fé for collection. The delinquent accounts, which are labeled “good,” “no good,” “bueno,” “fair,” “dead,” and “quien sabe,” total $43,837.18.

Emanuel Rosenwald in his reminiscences records that he went to Wyandotte “where we had a law suit for some money owed us on some lands and instead of getting money out of the case, I had to pay what little money I had for costs and lawyer’s fees in the case which left me without means to reach Denver.”24

Emanuel Rosenwald

Whatever economic success was achieved by the Jewish pioneer in that portion of the Southwest under scrutiny was the result of a number of factors. Those who migrated west were young, daring, energetic and ambitious. They brought an educated mind to a part of America where it appears that the other citizens were limited in education and business acumen. They also operated in family groups so that brothers and in-laws could be trusted in branch operations and the various enterprises that it took to find success. Too, it is conceivable that the marriages that took place in the early years of settlement among these families brought additional capital into an operation and also encouraged the younger brothers and sisters of the original migrant or his children to marry into the Jewish fold.
The Jewish pioneer made notable contributions to the up-building of America’s Southwest frontier. His record is one in which the citizens of the Southwest can only take pride.

The Spiegelberg Store on the Plaza in Santa Fé, New Mexico, 1881.
—From Photo Archives of WSJH


The current Seligman Variety Store, that stands on the site of the original Seligman Merchantile Center in Seligman, AZ.
The current townspeople emphasize the “lig” in Seligman and refer to him as the “German” founder of the town.
—Photo by David Epstein, August, 2004


Lesser & Lewinson Dry Goods Store, Albuquerque, New Mexico, c. 1900.
—From Photo Archives of WSJH


Charles Ilfeld Store, Las Vegas, New Mexico, 1886.
—From Photo Archives of WSJH

Editors Note: This paper was read at the Fifty-fifth Annual Meeting, Pacific Coast Branch, American Historical Assn., Loyola University of Los Angeles, August 29, 1962.

1. There were, of course, wholesalers and suppliers, like the Staab Brothers and Spiegelberg Brothers, but there is no evidence of a peddler with his merchandise on his back, or the single-wagon purveyor, as was found in the eastern United States where communities were clustered together.

2. William J. Parrish, “The German Jew and the Commercial Revolution in Territorial New Mexico, 1850-1900,” New Mexico Historical Review, Albuquerque, New Mexico, Vol. XXXV, January, 1960, and April, 1960, No. 1 and No. 2, pp. 129 129-150.

3. There are many legends concerning Solomon Barth. He probably was born at Frutochin, Posen, Prussia, in 1842, the son of Samuel and Fredericka Barth. He married Refugio Landarazo (1856-1921) at Cubero, New Mexico, in 1864. Barth came to America (or returned) at the age of thirteen, with an uncle. He crossed the plains of Utah in 1855 and went on to San Bernardino, California, in 1856. In the winter of 1860-61, be made a round trip to Tucson driving a freight team. In 1862 be was employed by Michel Goldwater at La Paz, Arizona. In 1863, he and Aaron Barnett were supplied by Goldwater with a stock of goods which they took to the Weaver diggings. There they did a flourishing business exchanging, merchandise and liquor for gold dust.
Barth was naturalized an American citizen in 1864. By an Act of the l0th Territorial Legislature (Arizona), 1879, he was granted the exclusive right to build a toll bridge across the Little Colorado River at St. Johns. He showed his business acumen in many ways, but one of the most interesting concerned his claim to ownership of the Grand Canyon to the Little Colorado River, including the northern half of the Apache County and Navajo County. His claim was based on a treaty with the Navajo Indians by which the tribal chiefs allegedly recognized his title to those lands.
In 1885 Barth was arrested on the charge of perjury and other offenses. He was sentenced to prison in 1887 and served time until February, 1889. When Barth died in 1928 at the age of eighty-six, be was the last surviving member of the -1.1tb Territorial Legislature. San Diego Union, December 9, 1928; Enterprise Supplement, Prescott, Arizona, November 23, 1878, 1-:5; The Weekly Arizona Miner, Prescott, Arizona, November 29, -1878, 4:.1; The Tombstone Epitaph, Tombstone, Arizona, June 20, 1885, 3:1-; Arizona Daily Star, Tucson, Arizona, February 15, 1889, 1. Consult Appendix 1.

4. Isaac Bibo and Blumenschen Rosenstein Bibo had ten children: seven sons, Nathan, Simon, Solomon (Salmon), Joseph, Samuel, Benjamin, Emil; and three daughters, Lina, Clara and Rica. Isaac Bibo, born in Graetz, Posen, was a cantor and teacher. The Bibos were active as post traders and government contractors in the West from 1866-1884. Letters of Arthur Bibo, son Emil, July 25, 1953 and December 24, 1960, Albuquerque, New Mexico. Records of the Bureau of Indian Affairs, Letters Received, Special Case No. 132, No. 2,2791, No. 13350, No. 18015, No. 22817, No. 14662.

5 Michel Goldwater was born in Russian-Poland in October, 1821. He married Sarah Nathan in London, England in 1850, and was naturalized an American citizen in Los Angeles in 1861. He lived in California from 1852 to 1862- In 1862 he and his brother Joe were attracted to the mining town of La Paz. With the arrival of Federal troops in the area in 1863, they engaged for more than a decade in bidding on Army contracts to supply grain and provisions to the military forts in Central and Northern Arizona. Prescott Arizona Miner, October 29, 1870.
In 1872 Joe and Mike [Michel] Goldwater opened a branch store in Phoenix. Michel Goldwater would arrange his buying trips to San Francisco so that he could attend Jewish Holyday Services in that city. “Mr. Michel Goldwater, one of our successful merchants, we learn from a telegram received of Morris, his son, arrived in San Francisco today, where he plans to remain four or five weeks and be present during the Jewish New Year and participate in the festivities thereto. He will also purchase a large stock of goods for the company’s stores at Ehrenberg and Prescott.” The Weekly Arizona Miner, September 7, 1877.

6. Two such examples are references to the Jewish holydays on October 1, 1867, “the second-day Rosh Hashona,” and on October 14, 1867, “the 2d Sukoth.” Samuel H. Drachman’s Diary, Arizona Pioneers’ Historical Association, Tucson, Arizona.

7. “Reminiscences of Emanuel Rosenwald,” New Mexico Historical Review, Albuquerque, New Mexico, Vol. XXXVII, No. 2, p. 1.15, April, 1962.

8. Floyd S. Fierman, Some Early Jewish Settlers on the Southwest Frontier, Texas Western Press, 1960. Consult Appendix 11.

9. Correspondence with Mrs. Perry Kallison, February 6, 1961, “The information which I shall set forth below came from the San Antonio, Texas, Public Library’s Texana Collection ... North America and Texas, translated from a German manuscript, and edited by Max Freund, University of Texas Press, Austin, 1954; Ferdinand Herff, The Organized Immigration of the German Proletariat With Particular Reference to Texas, M. F. Varrentrapp, P. Krebs, Frankfurt, 1850 (In German); Dr. Ferdinand Roemer, Texas With Particular Reference to German Immigration, Bonn, 1849. Translated by Oswald Mueller, Standard Printing Co., San Antonio, 3-935; Viktor Bracht, Texas im Jahre 1848, Elberfeld and Iserlohn, 1949; P. Alto S. Hoermann, Die Tochter Tehuan’s, Benziger Brothers, Cincinnati, 1866; J. Val. Hecke, Reise durch die Vereinigten Staaten von Nord-Amerika in don Jahren 1818 und 1819, Germany, 1821. . . . In Germany of the early 19th century, there was already a scarcity of land for her growing population. All kinds of plans were proposed to establish German colonies in Texas, one even proposing to buy land from the young Republic of Texas and to establish a German colony as part of Prussia. While no schemes of this sort ever came to pass, in the decades of the 40’s there were established several colonies, as either part of the Republic of Texas, or, after 1845, as part of the State of Texas. Most of these were located in South Central Texas, in sort of a triangle, of which San Antonio was the center, with New Braunfels on the north, 30 miles away, Fredericksberg, Comfort, and others to the Northwest, and Castroville on the Southwest side. Many Germans also settled in areas East of San Antonio, like Seguin, Schulenberg and the like.”

10. The Reminiscences of Emanuel Rosenwald, I. E. Solomon, Anna F. Solomon, Nathan Bibo, Samuel J. Freudenthal.

11. Fierman, Some Early Jewish Settlers on the Southwest Frontier, 14-38.

12. Abraham Staab was born in Westphalia, Germany, February 27, 1839. He arrived in the United States in 1854 at the age of fifteen and after two years in Norfolk, Virginia, migrated west. In 1858, after being employed by the Spiegelberg Brothers of Santa Fe’, New Mexico, for one year, he entered into the general merchandise business with his brother Zadoc Staab, the firm being known as Zadoc Staab and Brother. Gradually it became the largest wholesale and merchandising establishment in the Southwest. Abraham Staab successfully fought those who wanted to move the capital of New Mexico from Santa Fe’. He held a number of public offices and was the first president of the Santa Fe’ Chamber of Commerce. On December 25, 1865, he was united in marriage with Miss Julie Schuster. Abraham Staab died in 1913. Ralph E. Twitchell, Old Santa Fe’, Santa Fe’ New Mexico Publishing Corporation, C. 1925, pp. 479-80.

13. National Archives: 60311 A.C.P.-1872, A.G.O., R.G. No. 94, Files of Dr. B. Sacks, Historical Consultant, Arizona Historical Foundation.

14. The Zeckendorf brothers came from Independence, Missouri, to Santa Fe’ in the year 1854. Louis, Aaron and William Zeckendorf were born in Hanover, Germany. Aaron Zeckendorf came to Santa Fe’ first and later he was joined by his brothers, Louis and William. They opened a branch at Albuquerque and another at Rio Mimbres (Deming, New Mexico). In 1872, when Aaron died, the business was continued by Louis and William as the Zeckendorf Brothers. In 1878, when William retired, the business was continued as L. Zeckendorf and Co. During the deflation which followed the Civil War, the brothers found themselves with too much merchandise. They were told that the little town of Tucson was prospering so they moved there. In this manner the A. and L. Zeckendorf Company was born in Tucson. By the time the Southern Pacific Railroad had reached Tucson in 1880, Albert Steinfeld, the nephew of Aaron Zeckendorf, at the age of twenty-six, had already become manager of the firm that was to become Albert Steinfeld and Company. May Hughston, “Albert Steinfeld, Merchant,” Arizona Highways, 1950, 4ff - Correspondence of Elizabeth Smith with William Zcckendorf 111, November 3-5, 1951, American Jewish Archives, Cincinnati, Ohio.

15. Second National Bank of New Mexico Bank Letters (1872-1873), Coronado Room, University of New Mexico Library, Albuquerque, New Mexico.

16. Philip Drachman, born at Petrikov, Russian-Poland, migrated to New York in 1852 and on October 16, 1860, he was naturalized as a United States citizen at San Bernardino, California. He was the son of Harris and Rebecca Drachman and he married Rosa Katzenstein at New York City, April 6, 1868. Samuel H. Drachman was four years younger than his brother Philip. In 1875 he married Jenny Migel at San Bernardino, California. Samuel and Philip, his two brothers-in-law, Hyman Goldberg and Sam Katzenstein, and Hyman’s brother, Isaac, all were closely identified with the growth of the Arizona Territory. Arizona Pioneers’ Historical Society, Tucson, Arizona. Consult Appendix 111.

17. The Weekly Arizonian, Tucson, Arizona, September 25, 1869, 2:1.

18. Files of Dr. B. Sacks, Historical Consultant, Arizona Historical Foundation.

19. Idem.

20. Idem.

21. Arizona Weekly Star, Tucson, August 11, 1881, 1:4.

22. Arizona Gazette, Phoenix, May 28, 1885 3:7.

23. Dr. Myra Ellen Jenkins, State Archivist, State Records Center, Santa Fe’, New Mexico.

24. “Reminiscences of Emanuel Rosenwald,” loc. cit., 117, 118.