Volume #37, Issue #1, Fall, 2004/5765
Peddlers and Merchants
on the Southwest Frontier,
by Floyd S. Fierman
The Spiegelberg Brothers, 1860’s.
(l. to r.) Lehman, Solomon, Jacob, Levi & Willi. (Elias was deceased.)
—From Photo Archives of WSJH
The designation “Southwest” covers a broad swath. To some people it would
include all of Texas, Oklahoma, Utah and Colorado, as well as New Mexico and
Arizona. The subject matter under discussion in this paper shall encompass only
West Texas, New Mexico and Arizona.
The word “peddler” should also be deleted from the title when we refer to the
Southwest. It is inconceivable that “peddling” could have been employed to unite
the seller and the buyer in the land of the yucca and the saguaro. Distances
between communities were too vast, and the sparse settlements between the larger
trade-centers like Santa Fé, Old Mesilla and Yuma did not lend themselves to
this method of distribution. Furthermore, it would have been difficult for the
peddler to obtain merchandise to hawk since the established merchant, in
addition to selling his stock, was also forced to convey the articles for sale
into the trade area. After such a monumental effort he would have been reluctant
to share his valuable cargo. This is underlined by advertisements in the
periodicals of the day which emphasized that most trade was concentrated about
The term “Jewish” also necessitates exploration. Could the Jewish frontiersman
be distinguished from his Catholic, Protestant or nonprofessed counterpart? To
some students, consideration of a settler in the business category alone gives
no clue to the religious identity of the settler. A theme contrary to this is
suggested by Dean William Parrish of the University of New Mexico. He
differentiates in his study, The German few and the Commercial Revolution in
Territorial New Mexico 1850-1900,2 when he offers an encomium for the Jewish
merchant. It is his thesis that the German-Jewish merchant of New Mexico from
1850-1900 was a major factor in the economic development of New Mexico, if not
the Southwest. A corollary to this outlook is the observation that a large
percentage of those who stood behind the counter in the adobe towns were of
Jewish birth. Despite these well-documented arguments we should be alert to
Jewish renegades like Solomon Barth3 who excelled in dishonesty as compared to
such hinterland personalities as the Bibo brothers4 who might be classified as
Placing this analysis in the scales it would appear that the adjective “Jewish”
applies more accurately when the frontiersman is studied in broader sociological
aspects. Thus, Michel Goldwater 5 of Prescott arranged his buying trips to San
Francisco in 1877 so that they might coincide with the Jewish High Holydays; and
S. H. Drachman 6 of Tucson kept a diary, which begins in 1863, in which he noted
the occurrences of the Jewish Holydays as he roamed about the territory. Emanuel Rosenwald
7 in 1854 was faced with the dilemma of whether to keep his store open
or closed on Yom Kippur, the Day of Atonement. He resolved the matter with ease.
He remained home and prayed while his brother Joe took charge of the store.
Why They Came West
An underlying inquiry is what motivated the Jew to migrate to the Southwest.
This question was probed by the writer in a previous study, Some Early Jewish
Settlers on the Southwestern Frontier.8 In this monograph the theory was
developed that the Jew like anybody else came to the West because of El Dorado.
Dean Parrish presents the opinion that the steamship lines in cooperation with
the American railroads gave attractive discounts to the would-be western
immigrant. Mrs. Perry Kallison,9 a student of Texas history, informs us that a
number of books written in German about American opportunities, particularly in
Texas, were published in the German states in the last half of the nineteenth
century, There is a possibility that some of these adventurers to Arizona and
New Mexico may have read J. Val Hecke’s Reise durch die Vereingten Staaten von
NordAmerika. Hecke was so enthusiastic about Texas that he made the original
suggestion that Russia buy Texas from Spain and found a German colony in that
territory. Or else these restless people could have been enchanted by P. Alto S.
Hoerman’s novel, Tochter Tehuan’s, which romanticized Texas and which was in
wide circulation during the mid-nineteenth century.
Whether the transportation companies or the laudatory literature served as a
magnetic pull we cannot be certain. But of this we can be definite: the material
at hand discloses that the typical Jewish settler was a young man without
opportunity in his homeland, who had a compulsion to find a new prosperous life.
He was a treasure hunter and nothing else.
Sources of Information
In developing a methodology to uncover traces of the Jewish pioneer, it was
first necessary, of course, to locate the historical sources. Because “Uncle
Sam” was and still is the most important economic agent in the Southwest and
because the soldier had to be supplied, the Indian supervised, and the mail
carried, the National Archives contain the richest lode of information. They
list all the government transactions with the Southwest contractors.
Other references are the discovery of diaries and reminiscences written by some
of these migrants in their golden years. Reminiscences written late in life
frequently contain error due to the tendency of the elderly to exaggerate and
because of the pitfall of the lapse of memory, but these discourses as well as
the periodicals of the day are invaluable. Interviews with descendants of these
early travelers were also helpful. These conversations aid the researcher in
identifying various members of a family and sometimes because of their own
historical pride some descendants compiled genealogies which upon examination,
piece together the jig-saw puzzle of a settler’s career.
Some Prominent Pioneers
A prominent family in the Old Mesilla-El Paso vicinity was the
Lesinsky-Freudenthal-Solomon11 family. This combination of families, related by
marriage, were government mail carriers; they ran passenger coaches and they
supplied the troops stationed in the area. Government indentures were a little
less than a retainer, but they permitted a man or a family to branch out into
other areas. Henry Lesinsky and his company opened stores in Silver City, Las
Cruces and Solomonville. He also operated a copper mine and smelter in Clifton,
Arizona, and by 1880 the mine produced 100,000 pounds of copper per month. After
operating the mine for ten years, Henry and his partners sold the mine for
$1,400,000. Their original capital was $300,000.
Lesinsky, like the Staab Brothers
12 of Santa Fé, also made separate business
alliances with people outside of his normal business ventures. In one such case
Lesinsky became associated with Ernest Angerstein13 who was astute enough to lay
claim to a portion of Fort Bliss near El Paso when the government was slow in
exercising a lease renewal. Later when the well-known W. W. Mills of El Paso
attempted to wrest the Post readership away from Ernest Angerstein and his
partners who held the appointment, a communication from the government not only
did not support Mills but the writer commented that even if the Government did,
it could not remove Angerstein, since he now owned this area of Fort Bliss and
it was his homestead.
I. E. Solomon was the founder of a bank in Solomonville, Arizona, which was to
become the Valley National Bank of Arizona. The bank had its beginning in
Solomonville in 1899. The Solomon family eventually lost their holding in this
bank but they can be credited with founding it.
Few families are more colorful than the Spiegelberg family whose headquarters
were in Santa Fé. Solomon Jacob Spiegelberg, the oldest of six Spiegelberg
brothers, was the first to leave Germany. He crossed the Santa Fé trail in an
ox-train and, according to one report, was appointed a sutler for Colonel
William A. Doniphan’s regiment. By 1846 he had established a wholesale and
retail general merchandise business and in 1868 he was joined by his five
brothers, Willi, Emanuel, Levi, Lehman and Elias. This pattern of one member of
a family digging roots in the territory and then sending for or encouraging
other members of the family to migrate was a typical practice. It was true of
the Lesinsky - Freudenthal - Solomon family, the Rosenwalds and Staabs of New
Mexico; the Drachman -Goldberg, and the Zeckendorf - Steinfeld families of
Arizona.14 Many of the Spiegelberg records have been lost, but recently
uncovered material housed in the National Archives has revealed their activities
as Government contractors. Dean Parrish recently guided the writer to a bank
letter book which records the activities of the Spiegelbergs as bankers.15 The Spiegelbergs were founders of the Second National Bank of Santa Fé which held a
national bank charter from 1872 to 1892. These brothers, with Solomon returning
to Germany and Levi located in New York and the others remaining in Santa Fé,
did an international banking business from their center in the capital city of
New Mexico. They also staked their fellow countrymen, the Bibo brothers, in
their activities as Indian traders among the Acomas.
The Drachman - Goldberg16 family of Arizona also form a captivating aggregation.
Philip Drachman arrived in New York in 1852with two fellow passengers, Michel
and Joseph Goldwater, who were to become notable in Arizona history. In 1854, at
the age of eighteen, Philip came west. He and his brother Samuel, and their two
brothers-in-law, Hyman Goldberg and Sam Katzenstein, and Hyman’s brother, Isaac,
all were closely identified with the growth of the Arizona territory. While
these immigrants never personally accumulated the wealth that was potentially
obtainable, their efforts as prospectors were sifted on the drywasher to the
advantage of the territory. Immeasurable were their contributions to the
economic and political development in what was then a backward stretch of land.
Isaac Goldberg, called Lomo de Oro 17 by a contemporary journalist, was a
mercurial personality. He had interests above the ground and over the ground and
he was enchanted by what was in the ground. Sometimes he became a venturesome
prospector. Other times as in 1871 he responded as a supplier. He had a nose for
business and an eye for gold.
Aaron and Louis Zeckendorf, of German ancestors, had a general mercantile
business in Old Albuquerque from 1867 to 1869, and later located in Tucson,
Arizona. Louis Zeckendorf came to the United States in 1854 where he joined his
brother Aaron in Santa Fé. Shortly after, the firm of A & L. Zeckendorf was
started and in 1866 a branch house was initiated. Aaron died in 1872 and the
business in Tucson which became the central enterprise was continued by Louis.
The manner in which William Zeckendorf protected his property and stimulated
commerce illustrates that being a merchant in the territory in the eighteen
hundreds was not a drab experience. The Weekly Arizonian, Tucson, Arizona
Territory, shouted in pica that:
On Thursday night a party of burglars entered the store of Mr. [W.]
Zeckendorf and had carried out some $300 worth of clothing, when several
bullets from a pistol in the hands of excited Zeckendorf took effect at
various points in the roof of the building, and put the thieves to flight,
leaving their plunder piled in the street.18
William Zeckendorf kept his image before the public in various ways. The Weekly
Arizonian of 1870 reports:
On Sunday last Mr. Zeckendorf called the attention of every man, woman and
child in town to the anniversary of his birth, by a magnificent display of
fireworks.... The grandest pyrotechnic display of the evening marked the
closing of the celebration and consisted in the burning of Don Fernandez’
stable and hay, ignited by a spark from a Roman candle ....19
On another occasion, The Weekly Arizonian of 1870 comments:
Zeckendorf by the aid of a ladder climbed to the giddy summit of his store,
drove a huge steel spike into the wall ... suspended therefrom a glass
lantern not quite as large as a hogshead. The light which shoots out from
this is so intense that no chicken in any part of town ever goes to roost
until Zeckendorf extinguishes his lamp about 10 o’clock pm.
William Zeckendorf evidentially became a carnival promoter. In addition to
advertising himself by means of fireworks, dull business in December, 1870,
prompted him to stimulate the reticent buyer in another manner. He introduced a
“Christmas Lottery” at which two hundred prizes were announced by handbills
posted upon every building, fence, corral and gate in town. Tickets sold for
This was a scheme that he learned, we are told, from the Grand Mercantile
Library of San Francisco. Subsequently, a nephew of Aaron Zeckendorf, Albert
Steinfeld, who was at first a junior partner, assumed leadership of the store in
The Zeckendorfs, like all the other Southwestern newcomers referred to, obtained
warrants from the government. They held mail contracts, were suppliers, and they
sought and secured documents permitting them to trade with the Indians.
The Business Hazards
Engaging in business in the unfenced West had its hazards. The Bibos, for
example, had many problems incidental to supplying the Forts. Some of these
problems were created by nature while others were the result of human
dishonesty. In 1871 Nathan Bibo sublet a contract from the government to two
men, Howard and Leonard, who were to supply a hundred tons of hay to Fort
Apache. His partners, however, were as crooked as the roads which carried the
hay. A special messenger from the quartermaster at Camp Apache, a friend of
Nathan’s, warned him that the two men were privately collecting for every pound
of hay they had delivered, without divulging in their transactions that Nathan
Bibo was also a partner. After a hurried investigation, Nathan learned that not
only were his partners in this contract not giving him what was due him, they
were also using his hay cutting machines to cut the hay. By the time Nathan
arrived at Fort Apache, Howard and Leonard had already taken flight. Yet Nathan
was still responsible for fulfilling the contract.
Solomon Bibo, who was a post trader at the Acoma reservation, was accused by the
Indian Agent Pedro Sanchez in 1884 of violating his Trader’s License by
obtaining a lease of the Acoma grant. There was much litigation over this lease
and finally the government concluded in their case in 1888 that the lease with
Solomon Bibo was drawn up with the common consent of the Acoma Pueblo, and thus
Solomon was absolved from the accusation of engaging in sharp practices with the
The Drachmans and the Goldbergs who followed on the heels of the Arizona
prospector ascended and descended with the miner’s success or failure. To
operate in many directions required a quick merchandise turnover which in turn
demanded a boom town economy. Miners had to be staked, new settlers had to be
given credit and they were all good for what they borrowed as long as the
economy stood up and as long as they found the mineral they were seeking. But
when they did not, then the whole economy tumbled. This was the condition in
which Hyman Goldberg found himself in 1878. He was over-extended. To break the
chain of debt, he petitioned for bankruptcy in Yuma County on March 5, 1878.
There were, in addition to the hazard of the rapid rise and fall of boom towns,
the triple scourge of fire, building cave-in, and flash flood. A kerosene lamp
could be knocked over by an inebriate or inadvertently by a would-be customer
causing the soft-goods to go up in flame. The flash flood of the Southwest and
the subsequent weakening of the adobe walls from which buildings were
constructed could result in a cave-in, the vigas killing the unsuspecting people
below or just generally wrecking the building.
Hyman Goldberg was the proprietor of a store in Harshaw which received the
unexpected triple blow. In Harshaw “about two-thirds of his stock was destroyed
[by fire] and the balance considerably damaged .21 A Phoenix paper reported that
the loss approximated $15,000. This unfortunate occurrence was preceded a year
earlier by the crumbling of a wall where the loss was $600, and a month previous
to the fire, flood waters created damages to the amount of $1,000. Four years
later, in 1885, Hyman was a spectator at another fire, this time in Phoenix. It
leveled a whole business block and Goldberg’s merchandise and building loss was
The Spiegelbergs had their problems, too. The State Archives in Santa Fé
made available a record of delinquent accounts due the Spiegelberg Brothers
which was given to the legal firm of Gildersleeve and Knaebel of Santa Fé for
collection. The delinquent accounts, which are labeled “good,” “no good,” “bueno,”
“fair,” “dead,” and “quien sabe,” total $43,837.18.
Emanuel Rosenwald in his reminiscences records that he went to Wyandotte “where
we had a law suit for some money owed us on some lands and instead of getting
money out of the case, I had to pay what little money I had for costs and
lawyer’s fees in the case which left me without means to reach Denver.”24
Whatever economic success was achieved by the Jewish pioneer in that portion of
the Southwest under scrutiny was the result of a number of factors. Those who
migrated west were young, daring, energetic and ambitious. They brought an
educated mind to a part of America where it appears that the other citizens were
limited in education and business acumen. They also operated in family groups so
that brothers and in-laws could be trusted in branch operations and the various
enterprises that it took to find success. Too, it is conceivable that the
marriages that took place in the early years of settlement among these families
brought additional capital into an operation and also encouraged the younger
brothers and sisters of the original migrant or his children to marry into the
The Jewish pioneer made notable contributions to the up-building of America’s
Southwest frontier. His record is one in which the citizens of the Southwest can
only take pride.
The Spiegelberg Store on the Plaza in Santa Fé, New Mexico, 1881.
—From Photo Archives of WSJH
The current Seligman Variety Store, that stands on
the site of the original Seligman Merchantile Center in Seligman, AZ.
The current townspeople emphasize the “lig” in Seligman and refer to him as the
“German” founder of the town.
—Photo by David Epstein, August, 2004
Lesser & Lewinson Dry Goods Store, Albuquerque,
New Mexico, c. 1900.
—From Photo Archives of WSJH
Charles Ilfeld Store, Las Vegas, New Mexico, 1886.
—From Photo Archives of WSJH
Editors Note: This paper was read at the Fifty-fifth
Annual Meeting, Pacific Coast Branch, American Historical Assn., Loyola
University of Los Angeles, August 29, 1962.
1. There were, of course, wholesalers and suppliers, like the Staab Brothers and
Spiegelberg Brothers, but there is no evidence of a peddler with his merchandise
on his back, or the single-wagon purveyor, as was found in the eastern United
States where communities were clustered together.
2. William J. Parrish, “The German Jew and the Commercial Revolution in
Territorial New Mexico, 1850-1900,” New Mexico Historical Review, Albuquerque,
New Mexico, Vol. XXXV, January, 1960, and April, 1960, No. 1 and No. 2, pp. 129
3. There are many legends concerning Solomon Barth. He probably was born at
Frutochin, Posen, Prussia, in 1842, the son of Samuel and Fredericka Barth. He
married Refugio Landarazo (1856-1921) at Cubero, New Mexico, in 1864. Barth came
to America (or returned) at the age of thirteen, with an uncle. He crossed the
plains of Utah in 1855 and went on to San Bernardino, California, in 1856. In
the winter of 1860-61, be made a round trip to Tucson driving a freight team. In
1862 be was employed by Michel Goldwater at La Paz, Arizona. In 1863, he and
Aaron Barnett were supplied by Goldwater with a stock of goods which they took
to the Weaver diggings. There they did a flourishing business exchanging,
merchandise and liquor for gold dust.
Barth was naturalized an American citizen in 1864. By an Act of the l0th
Territorial Legislature (Arizona), 1879, he was granted the exclusive right to
build a toll bridge across the Little Colorado River at St. Johns. He showed his
business acumen in many ways, but one of the most interesting concerned his
claim to ownership of the Grand Canyon to the Little Colorado River, including
the northern half of the Apache County and Navajo County. His claim was based on
a treaty with the Navajo Indians by which the tribal chiefs allegedly recognized
his title to those lands.
In 1885 Barth was arrested on the charge of perjury and other offenses. He was
sentenced to prison in 1887 and served time until February, 1889. When Barth
died in 1928 at the age of eighty-six, be was the last surviving member of the
-1.1tb Territorial Legislature. San Diego Union, December 9, 1928; Enterprise
Supplement, Prescott, Arizona, November 23, 1878, 1-:5; The Weekly Arizona
Miner, Prescott, Arizona, November 29, -1878, 4:.1; The Tombstone Epitaph,
Tombstone, Arizona, June 20, 1885, 3:1-; Arizona Daily Star, Tucson, Arizona,
February 15, 1889, 1. Consult Appendix 1.
4. Isaac Bibo and Blumenschen Rosenstein Bibo had ten children: seven sons,
Nathan, Simon, Solomon (Salmon), Joseph, Samuel, Benjamin, Emil; and three
daughters, Lina, Clara and Rica. Isaac Bibo, born in Graetz, Posen, was a cantor
and teacher. The Bibos were active as post traders and government contractors in
the West from 1866-1884. Letters of Arthur Bibo, son Emil, July 25, 1953 and
December 24, 1960, Albuquerque, New Mexico. Records of the Bureau of Indian
Affairs, Letters Received, Special Case No. 132, No. 2,2791, No. 13350, No.
18015, No. 22817, No. 14662.
5 Michel Goldwater was born in Russian-Poland in October, 1821. He married Sarah
Nathan in London, England in 1850, and was naturalized an American citizen in
Los Angeles in 1861. He lived in California from 1852 to 1862- In 1862 he and
his brother Joe were attracted to the mining town of La Paz. With the arrival of
Federal troops in the area in 1863, they engaged for more than a decade in
bidding on Army contracts to supply grain and provisions to the military forts
in Central and Northern Arizona. Prescott Arizona Miner, October 29, 1870.
In 1872 Joe and Mike [Michel] Goldwater opened a branch store in Phoenix. Michel
Goldwater would arrange his buying trips to San Francisco so that he could
attend Jewish Holyday Services in that city. “Mr. Michel Goldwater, one of our
successful merchants, we learn from a telegram received of Morris, his son,
arrived in San Francisco today, where he plans to remain four or five weeks and
be present during the Jewish New Year and participate in the festivities
thereto. He will also purchase a large stock of goods for the company’s stores
at Ehrenberg and Prescott.” The Weekly Arizona Miner, September 7, 1877.
6. Two such examples are references to the Jewish holydays on October 1, 1867,
“the second-day Rosh Hashona,” and on October 14, 1867, “the 2d Sukoth.” Samuel
H. Drachman’s Diary, Arizona Pioneers’ Historical Association, Tucson, Arizona.
7. “Reminiscences of Emanuel Rosenwald,” New Mexico Historical Review,
Albuquerque, New Mexico, Vol. XXXVII, No. 2, p. 1.15, April, 1962.
8. Floyd S. Fierman, Some Early Jewish Settlers on the Southwest Frontier, Texas
Western Press, 1960. Consult Appendix 11.
9. Correspondence with Mrs. Perry Kallison, February 6, 1961, “The information
which I shall set forth below came from the San Antonio, Texas, Public Library’s
Texana Collection ... North America and Texas, translated from a German
manuscript, and edited by Max Freund, University of Texas Press, Austin, 1954;
Ferdinand Herff, The Organized Immigration of the German Proletariat With
Particular Reference to Texas, M. F. Varrentrapp, P. Krebs, Frankfurt, 1850 (In
German); Dr. Ferdinand Roemer, Texas With Particular Reference to German
Immigration, Bonn, 1849. Translated by Oswald Mueller, Standard Printing Co.,
San Antonio, 3-935; Viktor Bracht, Texas im Jahre 1848, Elberfeld and Iserlohn,
1949; P. Alto S. Hoermann, Die Tochter Tehuan’s, Benziger Brothers, Cincinnati,
1866; J. Val. Hecke, Reise durch die Vereinigten Staaten von Nord-Amerika in don
Jahren 1818 und 1819, Germany, 1821. . . . In Germany of the early 19th century,
there was already a scarcity of land for her growing population. All kinds of
plans were proposed to establish German colonies in Texas, one even proposing to
buy land from the young Republic of Texas and to establish a German colony as
part of Prussia. While no schemes of this sort ever came to pass, in the decades
of the 40’s there were established several colonies, as either part of the
Republic of Texas, or, after 1845, as part of the State of Texas. Most of these
were located in South Central Texas, in sort of a triangle, of which San Antonio
was the center, with New Braunfels on the north, 30 miles away, Fredericksberg,
Comfort, and others to the Northwest, and Castroville on the Southwest side.
Many Germans also settled in areas East of San Antonio, like Seguin, Schulenberg
and the like.”
10. The Reminiscences of Emanuel Rosenwald, I. E. Solomon, Anna F. Solomon,
Nathan Bibo, Samuel J. Freudenthal.
11. Fierman, Some Early Jewish Settlers on the Southwest Frontier, 14-38.
12. Abraham Staab was born in Westphalia, Germany, February 27, 1839. He arrived
in the United States in 1854 at the age of fifteen and after two years in
Norfolk, Virginia, migrated west. In 1858, after being employed by the
Spiegelberg Brothers of Santa Fe’, New Mexico, for one year, he entered into the
general merchandise business with his brother Zadoc Staab, the firm being known
as Zadoc Staab and Brother. Gradually it became the largest wholesale and
merchandising establishment in the Southwest. Abraham Staab successfully fought
those who wanted to move the capital of New Mexico from Santa Fe’. He held a
number of public offices and was the first president of the Santa Fe’ Chamber of
Commerce. On December 25, 1865, he was united in marriage with Miss Julie
Schuster. Abraham Staab died in 1913. Ralph E. Twitchell, Old Santa Fe’, Santa
Fe’ New Mexico Publishing Corporation, C. 1925, pp. 479-80.
13. National Archives: 60311 A.C.P.-1872, A.G.O., R.G. No. 94, Files of Dr. B.
Sacks, Historical Consultant, Arizona Historical Foundation.
14. The Zeckendorf brothers came from Independence, Missouri, to Santa Fe’ in
the year 1854. Louis, Aaron and William Zeckendorf were born in Hanover,
Germany. Aaron Zeckendorf came to Santa Fe’ first and later he was joined by his
brothers, Louis and William. They opened a branch at Albuquerque and another at
Rio Mimbres (Deming, New Mexico). In 1872, when Aaron died, the business was
continued by Louis and William as the Zeckendorf Brothers. In 1878, when William
retired, the business was continued as L. Zeckendorf and Co. During the
deflation which followed the Civil War, the brothers found themselves with too
much merchandise. They were told that the little town of Tucson was prospering
so they moved there. In this manner the A. and L. Zeckendorf Company was born in
Tucson. By the time the Southern Pacific Railroad had reached Tucson in 1880,
Albert Steinfeld, the nephew of Aaron Zeckendorf, at the age of twenty-six, had
already become manager of the firm that was to become Albert Steinfeld and
Company. May Hughston, “Albert Steinfeld, Merchant,” Arizona Highways, 1950, 4ff
- Correspondence of Elizabeth Smith with William Zcckendorf 111, November 3-5,
1951, American Jewish Archives, Cincinnati, Ohio.
15. Second National Bank of New Mexico Bank Letters (1872-1873), Coronado Room,
University of New Mexico Library, Albuquerque, New Mexico.
16. Philip Drachman, born at Petrikov, Russian-Poland, migrated to New York in
1852 and on October 16, 1860, he was naturalized as a United States citizen at
San Bernardino, California. He was the son of Harris and Rebecca Drachman and he
married Rosa Katzenstein at New York City, April 6, 1868. Samuel H. Drachman was
four years younger than his brother Philip. In 1875 he married Jenny Migel at
San Bernardino, California. Samuel and Philip, his two brothers-in-law, Hyman
Goldberg and Sam Katzenstein, and Hyman’s brother, Isaac, all were closely
identified with the growth of the Arizona Territory. Arizona Pioneers’
Historical Society, Tucson, Arizona. Consult Appendix 111.
17. The Weekly Arizonian, Tucson, Arizona, September 25, 1869, 2:1.
18. Files of Dr. B. Sacks, Historical Consultant, Arizona Historical Foundation.
21. Arizona Weekly Star, Tucson, August 11, 1881, 1:4.
22. Arizona Gazette, Phoenix, May 28, 1885 3:7.
23. Dr. Myra Ellen Jenkins, State Archivist, State Records Center, Santa Fe’,
24. “Reminiscences of Emanuel Rosenwald,” loc. cit., 117, 118.